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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

"Migration should be an option, a choice. But for 200 million people, it's a necessity," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation in a phone interview.

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Anxiety has been fanned by the build-up of corporate debt in emerging markets, which doubled between 2008 and 2014 and has been one of the fastest growing areas of the global bond market.
尽管人工智能取得了突破,阿里巴巴集团董事局主席马云却认为,人类不需要惧怕机器。
"The autonomous region has invested 4 billion yuan (around 600 million US dollars) to promote industries with local features in poor areas, and relocated 77,000 poor people last year," said Lu Huadong, deputy director with the office.

今年的获奖榜单如下:
Foreign investment in emerging markets has dropped to the lowest level since the financial crisis as investors are braced for the fallout of the first US interest rate rise in nearly a decade.
The website claims that "the more you sip, the smarter you (and the bottle) get," but in reality the more you sip, the drunker you get and the less information you'll retain.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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在就业和创业之间进行抉择时,中国的大学毕业生偏向于前者。
40万美元对于他们来说可谓九牛一毛——2015年,希拉里和她的丈夫比尔?克林顿主要通过演讲和版税收入赚得了1060万美元,特朗普也声称自己赚得将近5600万美元。
qualified

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Other Chinese companies that filed a large number of patents included ZTE, Alibaba, Xiaomi, BYD and Haier, all of which are rapidly expanding into Europe.
针对那些对比较世界各地的学校有兴趣的学生,《美国新闻与世界报道》近日发布了第四版全球最佳大学年度排行榜。
A Larger Profile

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 2016年中国迅猛发展的网红经济可能会达到87亿美元
  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(11.9-11.13)
  • Take multiple measures to cut costs.
  • 民间投资增速实现领跑 将迎更有利措施提质增效
  • 东莞家具知识产权第一案落定:顾家家居因侵权赔偿10万
  • However, you know when your cycles are over when the washer and dryer stop making noise. And you know when the weather is ugly by simply looking outside, or checking your weather app. Therefore, the product is basically just another way hackers can get into your home.
    The city offers excitement beyond your expectations, with grand churches, a richly varied number of museums, a growing modern-art scene and streets that come alive with summer festivals.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 满足棚改货币化补偿市民购房需求, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

楼市量价提升库存压力突显 开发商谋新招应对

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

商业银行信用贷年化利率最高逾20% 逼近监管红线

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 从1970年到今天,世界各地的文盲减少了50%。
    The dollar value of China’s exports fell markedly more than expected last month and import growth more than halved, while revisions to November data erased what had appeared to be a long-hoped-for return to growth for outbound shipments.
  • We learned that you can never turn a wolf into a pet dog.
    日前,美国民主党候选人希拉里·克林顿承诺,如果她在总统竞选中获胜,那么她的内阁将有半数成员是女性。
    11月份,由于大中城市实施了一波限购措施,中国全国城市新建住宅价格加速上涨的趋势失去了更多动力,尽管价格同比涨幅仍轻松维持在两位数的水平。
    获奖者:金·卡戴珊
    2. How to write a CV

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 松木家具行业发展趋势分析:将成家具潮流先锋
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 发改委:关于推动物流高质量发展 促进形成强大国内市场的意见

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The work of Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley has sparked a "flourishing field of research" and helped improve the performance of many markets, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
6. Miranda Kerr
2017已经是詹姆斯在联盟中的第十四个赛季,但他的场均助攻和篮板竟然还创下了职业新高。在这个赛季的前两个月里,他拿出了整个职业生涯最好的三分表现,但鉴于这已经被各方专家们讨论和剖析,并且被媒体广泛的报道了,我在这里就不加赘述了。
联邦控制委员会要求修订的财政计划必须在1月底前批准,举出加西亚去年提交的部份是不现实的,并过度依赖联邦资金。加西亚拒绝提交一项修订计划,包括紧缩措施。罗塞略已经表示,他将要求延长还款期限与在2月到期的延缓偿付,目前保护波多黎各避免被愤怒的债权人诉讼。
tox毒,ic-有毒的
The school ranks first for alumni satisfaction.
你从来没有一醒来就能积极地工作

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 吉密欧(Jamil Anderlini)
  • 新闻分析:下半年央企改革如何布局?
  • The base hopes to keep up public awareness of pandas and the necessity of conservation of their natural habitats while Increasing the wild population by reintroducing individuals into areas in China where populations have declined.
    “在三个月里,我在我的三个女儿身上总共花费了5000英镑。有一件裙子花了我两百美元,她只穿过两次,就长高了、不合身了。——不过我不打算节制开支。”
  • 七月金华楼市陷淡季成交量少 楼盘活动多
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Such borrowing is predicated in part on the assumption that by decontextualizing a style you also strip it of any possible negative implications: military, dynastic, what have you. It becomes an aesthetic form that exists on its own terms, as opposed to one that symbolizes all sorts of complicated societal or political convulsions.
    中国始终支持一个团结繁荣稳定的欧盟,也支持强大的欧元,支持欧洲一体化进程,因为这有利于经济全球化、世界多极化和文明多样化。我对欧盟的前景是乐观的,我们对中欧关系的发展前景也是看好的。
  • 同时,只有三部好莱坞大片成功挤进2015年中国电影票房销售额的前十名。它们分别是《速度与激情7》、《复仇者联盟:奥创纪元》以及《侏罗纪世界》。
    显然相信“更长时间保持较低位”如今意味着“永远保持较低位”的投资者,最近几周已经涌向新兴市场资产。
  • New Year time is here. I hope you have a wonderful New Year. May every day hold happy hours for you.
    Executives in the finance and real estate industries have the highest pay, according to figures from the 1,894 listed companies that announced their annual financial reports in 2016.
  • Some people remain attached to a theory that can be described as resource scarcity. At its heart this theory suggests that resource development follows a linear pattern in which low-cost resources are developed first, meaning that most if not all future development must be more costly. Unfortunately the history of the industry does not support this view. If anything the experience of the past few decades suggests that the opposite is true.
    单词entertainment 联想记忆:
    Metals cases made up a record 46 per cent of the 233 anti-dumping actions brought worldwide in 2015, with the steel industry accounting for almost all of the metals complaints.
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    11月中国房地产价格继续下跌,因投资者把更多注意力从房地产市场转向股市。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 全国工业建筑领域首部绿色设计指引将发布 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

济南楼市调控:二手房交易酝酿全面资金监管

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

中国国旅15.59亿元竞得海口六块国际免税城配套用地

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

大禹伟业董事长黄金星:液体橡胶会开启一个新时代

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

英媒:中国空置房过剩 面积接近新加坡国土

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said the majority of those being detained had agreed to pay back some of the money they had gained illegally in exchange for their freedom.
  • 这名43岁的女子被判处为期12个月的行为考察,并且不得再次拥有宠物。
  • 2016年中国建筑陶瓷业相关政策法规分析

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 自信和迷茫只有一线之隔,而现在的科比·布莱恩特正横跨在这两端。这是在周二与勇士的比赛中我们唯一可以得出的结论。这位湖人队的超级明星打出了自己职业生涯当中,单场至少五次投篮的比赛中最糟糕的一场。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Its Academic Ranking of World Universities is made up of six objective indicators, including the number of alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals, the number of highly-cited researchers, the number of articles published in the journals Nature and Science, the number of articles indexed in the "Science Citation Index", and their per capita performance.
    “The worker threw a brick through the window with the words ‘I quit’ written on it.”
    6. 减少饱和脂肪摄入可以帮助保持记忆力
  • 艾丽斯·斯瓦策尔(Alice Schwarzer)

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 在北约1999年对南斯拉夫的空袭中,大西洋联盟对塞尔维亚和科索沃境内数以百计的目标进行了打击。绝大多数目标都没有争议:防空阵地、军队指挥部和其他军事目标。然而对一个特殊目标的摧毁却在世界另一端掀起了声势浩大的反西方特别是反美浪潮。那个目标就是驻贝尔格莱德的中国大使馆。
  • 北京中关村:企业员工搬进安全出租房
  • 周边环境:斯托宁顿位于康涅狄格州东南部的小纳拉甘西特湾(Little Narragansett Bay),从哈特福特(Hartford)和罗德岛的普罗维登斯(Providence, R.I.)开车约1小时可达,从纽约市开车约3小时。这里曾是一个具有悠久历史的繁忙港口,至今仍然保留着一支商业捕鱼船队,有几个分布着殖民式和联邦式建筑的历史区,以及一个繁荣的航海社区。在该镇的一端有个小型的公共海滩,而在另一端罗德岛的沃奇·希尔(Watch Hill)则有个大得多的海滩,开车大约20分钟可到。这栋希腊复兴式房屋带有此类建筑必不可少的爱奥尼亚柱和山形墙上的扇骨半圆窗,房屋就坐落在市镇中心。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 北京公租房首试“老年公寓”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 广东东莞:家具专利快速申请首次向个人开放
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

高标准厂房和工业大厦将可直接转让

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京一房产突变“商办”楼 300多业主遭遇产权困局
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 楼市调控新风向:限制企业买住房扩大至一线城市
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

That is up from a rise of 11.2 per cent in September.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

顾伦德.查达哈的这部殖民题材电影讲的是1947年的英印权力移交及其余波。当时蒙巴顿勋爵夫妇的府邸有500名仆人,他们中有印度教徒、穆斯林和锡克教徒。休.博内威利和吉莉安.安德森饰演主人公夫妇。
Canada, the second largest country in the world in terms of landmass, ranks No. 2 overall. It takes top spots in Quality of Life and Best Countries for Education.
Eleven James:
His strategic shift away from corporate strategy was in spite of the fact that his own school had deterred him from making a career in education, even though he had worked as a private tutor.
Chris Washington, played by London-born Daniel Kaluuya, is drawn into the sinister underbelly of a small American community.
Transforming and upgrading the real economy through innovation
《Trigger Mortis》于9月8日发行,先于10月26日上映的007新电影《(幽灵党(暂译)》(Spectre)。
《量子破碎》
但并非所有记者──比如笔者本人──都认同这个最终评估结果。
n. 全体船员,全体乘务员,(一组)工作人员

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

广州2018年住宅用地供应同比增四成

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The director Bennett Miller saw Mr. Carell as a good choice to play du Pont but didn’t want him to be too recognizable. He charged the makeup designer Bill Corso with the task of altering Mr. Carell’s look.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Chinese growth figures have long been known to be artificially smooth, but now the economy is easily the world’s largest on purchasing power exchange rates, the statistical massages have wider consequences.
  • 机构:春节因素致楼市低迷 3月成交量或小幅释放
  • They must understand in their bones that it is illegitimate to make temporary power permanent by rigging elections, suppressing contrary opinions or harassing the opposition.
  • 资本角逐万亿定制市场 “家居定制”或成下一个风口
  • 201512/415505.shtml

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • “金九”房企推货速度加快
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Statistics showed that Tibet had around 590,000 rural poor by the end of 2015.
  • 中国投资10亿美金用以将进一步打造C9大学(中国最好的9所大学)。 经费将会主要用来吸引顶级的教职人员,建造世界一流的教学设施,和招募一流的声源。中国将会国际智力、教育和技能的人才大战中逐鹿。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

政府工作报告:今年实施更大规模的减税

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